El Tratado de Fort Laramie

        Uno de los más importantes puntos de inflexión en las Guerras Indias de Norteamérica tuvo lugar en 1868, con la rúbrica del Tratado de Fort Laramie, en la que el gobierno de los Estados Unidos de América solicitó la paz ante el jefe Nube Roja, el único que logró vencer a Washington tanto en el campo militar como en el diplomático, desmantelándose la Línea Bozeman y terminando con las guerras en la región hasta la campaña de Little Big Horn de 1876.

            NOTA: Queda prohibida la reproducción total o parcial del contenido del siguiente artículo, tanto en su aspecto escrito como de las imágenes contenidas en él, sin el consentimiento expreso de la administración del presente espacio web.

            NOTA (II): La mayoría de las imágenes incluidas en el presente artículo fueron tomadas durante la realización del I Evento de Recreación Western en Almería, que tuvo lugar en noviembre de 2017 en el Poblado Oasys Minihollywood, en Tabernas. La U.E.O. quiere agradecer la colaboración de los participantes y la organización del evento.

        ANTECEDENTES: LA GUERRA DE NUBE ROJA

        El fin de la Guerra de Secesión trajo consigo de nuevo la apertura de las rutas del Oeste, a fin de colonizar por parte de los nuevos miles de ciudadanos europeos que llegaban a New York los vastos territorios vírgenes de las actuales Montana, Wyoming, Colorado y Dakota. El trazado ferroviario de la Union Pacific y de la Central Pacific pronto supondría una nueva alternativa, pero en 1866, cuando empezaron de nuevo los conflictos con las tribus indias de la región, aún estaba por terminar.

        La Línea Bozeman estaba formada por tres fuertes, que unían Fort Laramie y Virginia City, y contaban con pequeñas guarniciones de infantería, algunas piezas de artillería y destacamentos del 2º de Caballería, estando formada por Fort Reno, Fort Phil Kearney y Fort C. F. Smith. En 1866, cerca de uno de estos fuertes, Phil Kearney, un destacamento al mando del Capitán Fetterman fue masacrado y cercado el puesto, que tuvo que ser rescatado desde Laramie. Sería la primera de las acciones ofensivas de Nube Roja, en un intento por expulsar a los blancos de las tierras indias. Las principales rutas de abastecimiento y de los colonos pasaron a estar amenazadas, y el ejército era incapaz de devolver la estabilidad a la región.

        A lo largo de 1867 tuvieron lugar las batallas de Wagon Box y Hayfield, donde las tropas azules consiguieron rechazar los ataques indios, pero los pieles rojas seguían dominando la región. El cambio de estrategia, tras algunas campañas infructuosas, como la del General Hancock, implicó operaciones invernales, ya que con la nieve los indios perdían su movilidad y los ponys no podían pastar, mientras que el ejército podía seguir actuando gracias a los carromatos de suministros. La nueva táctica fue un éxito y en campañas más al Sur, contra los Cheyennes, el 7º de Caballería de Custer logró aplastar el campamento de Black Kettle a orillas del río Washita.

        Sin embargo, la resistencia y combatividad de las tribus impresionaron a Washington, y una Comisión determinó que las rutas a través de Montana y sus fuertes eran contrarios a la ley. Se ordenó enviar emisarios para entablar conversaciones con Nube Roja, y en 1868, en Fuerte Laramie, se ofreció la paz a los indios.

        EL CAMINO A LA PAZ

        El gobierno federal, tras aceptar los designios de la Comisión, analizó la situación estratégica, a fin de valorar en qué condiciones se podría negociar la paz. Estaba claro que una de las principales reivindicaciones indias sería, sin duda, el abandono de la Línea Bozeman y de sus fuertes, cerrándose esa ruta comercial.

        Sin embargo, ese mismo año, en Promontory Point, la Centra Pacific y la Union Pacific habían unido finalmente sus raíles, uniendo el Este con el Oeste, de tal modo que las nuevas rutas de los colonos hacia California irían más hacia el Sur. Así, la Línea Bozeman había quedado obsoleta, y ello significaba que podría ser retirada y evacuados sus fuertes. Se valoró además la posibilidad de tratar de "civilizar" a los indios, mediante la construcción de pequeñas instalaciones entre las que se incluyera una escuela, de modo que poco a poco las nuevas generaciones se fueran occidentalizando, y ello pudiera evitar otra guerra en el futuro. Desde la perspectiva india, la cuestión era bien distinta.

        

        Cuando los emisarios llegaron hasta Nube Roja, en un concilio los principales líderes tribales determinaron que no querían hombres blancos en su territorio de caza, y que no querían vivir de otro modo que no fuera el de sus padres, en libertad. Así, tal y como era de esperar, Nube Roja exigió la evacuación de los fuertes antes de firmar nada, y la restitución de sus tierras. Además, se realizaría una firma oficial en Washington, a donde el propio jefe indio acudiría a firmar la paz con el "Gran Padre Blanco", nombre dado por los indios al Presidente de los Estados Unidos. No debe olvidarse que la suma de tribus formaban la Nación Sioux, y que el status de Nube Roja, a los efectos legales del Derecho Internacional para la firma de un tratado, era el de Jefe de Estado.

        EL TRATADO DE FORT LARAMIE

        El Tratado de Fort Laramie no sólo implicó a la Nación Sioux, sino también a la Arapahoe. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las tribus firmantes (Sans Arc, Santee, Oglala, Brulee, Pies Negros, Miniconju,Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Cuthhead, Two Kettle) pertenecían a la primera, destacando que muchas de ellas estarían presentes en la Gran Guerra Sioux de 1876 (la Guerra de Toro Sentado), cuando los blancos violaron el Tratado. La reunión para un primer borrador entre los Representantes del Gobierno (entre los que destacaba la presencia del General Alfred Terry) y los jefes indios, dio como resultado un boceto de 17 artículos, y tuvo lugar el 19 de abril de 1868, en Fort Laramie, punto que daría nombre al acuerdo de paz. Una transcripción completa y textual del Tratado se podrá leer al final del presente documento, a nivel de divulgación histórica, dando al lector la visión exacta de lo acordado por las partes. Baste ahora un breve resumen explicativo.

        -Límites territoriales: Una de las principales reivindicaciones indias era la garantía de la restitución de sus territorios de caza, pero dado que se trataba de una cultura nómada, los propios indios no tenían muy claro el concepto de límite o de propiedad sobre la tierra. Así, fue un impacto muy grande para Nube Roja que en Washington se le marcaran dichos límites, que él consideró una mentira por parte del hombre blanco con respecto al acuerdo preliminar llevado a cabo en Fort Laramie.

        Los límites marcados incluían el corte del Paralelo 46, latitud Norte, con el río Missouri, hasta la frontera con el Estado de Nebraska (en aquella época, Nebraska ya era un Estado, pero Dakota, por ejemplo, era sólo un Territorio), y enlazando con el 104º longitud Oeste de Greenwich. Algunos anexos territoriales se incluían a estas delimitaciones, adaptadas a ríos o cadenas montañosas, aunque el elemento principal exigido por los indios era la conservación de las Colinas Negras, algo que fue garantizado por el Gobierno Federal, y más adelante, incumplido.

        -Infraestructuras: A fin de dotar a las reservas indias de determinadas infraestructuras, el Gobierno Federal se comprometía a la construcción de una serie de edificaciones, que serían financiadas por parte de la propia administración. Entre ellas, destacaba la presencia de una vivienda para el Agente Indio con un coste de hasta 3.000 dólares (representante del Gobierno que viviría en la reserva de forma permanente), con las adecuadas edificaciones complementarias a la misma (incluyendo salón de reuniones, edificio de administración, etc), valorado todo ello en "no menos de 25.000 dólares."

        Además, se establecía en la reserva un puesto médico, con un doctor adscrito permanentemente en su propia residencia (que costaría otros 3.000 dólares), y se invertirían otros 2.000 en construcciones anexas para facilitar la vida en la reserva, como carpintería, herrería, etc, creándose así un pequeño pueblo en el centro del territorio indio, aunque en teoría este fuese para servir a los intereses de los nativos.

        Junto a las anteriores construcciones, otros 5.000 dólares irían destinados a la construcción de una capilla y una escuela, con el fin de evangelizar por un lado y educar en el modo de vida occidental a los niños de la reserva por el otro. Este sistema, que se aplicó de un modo totalmente simbólico y libre de cualquier análisis serio, hubiera sido un valioso sustituto de las campañas militares a largo plazo, pero la filosofía del momento no era la de establecer puentes que unieran las dos formas de vida, sino la de quitarse cuanto antes el problema y al mismo tiempo, en caso de problemas, aplastarlo militarmente.

     

        -Fuero y jurisdicciones: Aunque ambas partes firmantes se comprometían a garantizar la paz, era evidente que podrían producirse transgresiones por individuos sueltos, por lo que fue necesario establecer un protocolo de actuación para llevar a los culpables a la justicia. En ese sentido, la figura del Agente Indio se convirtió en fundamental, ya que los firmantes se comprometían a entregar a los transgresores a las autoridades, en el caso de los nativos, a través del mencionado Agente, a fin de que fueran encausados según la legislación de los Estados Unidos. Era este otro de los puntos que los jefes indios consideraron un engaño, ya que tanto si el transgresor era blanco como si era indio, se le aplicaba la justicia blanca.

        -Suministro y subsistencia: El Gobierno de los Estados Unidos se comprometía mediante el tratado a facilitar formación e infraestructuras para enseñar a los indios que así lo deseasen el arte de la agricultura, cediéndose porciones de terreno de la zona del tratado para que los nativos que lo deseasen pudieran formar sus granjas. Además, el gobierno federal se comprometía a aprovisionar las reservas de suministros, en especial ropa para el invierno, contabilizándose un conjunto concreto de prendas para cada uno de los habitantes censados, en especial abrigos de lana, que los protegerían de las gélidas temperaturas de las llanuras. Se les dotaba a aquellos que se inscribieran, además, de una pensión de 10 dólares, de tal modo que se pudiera tener controlada a la población a un bajo coste. Muchos de los habitantes de las reservas rehusaron registrarse y ser así controlados por tan bajo coste.

        -Compromisos indios: Las tribus firmantes, por su parte, se comprometían a no violar los límites del tratado, permitiendo así construcciones ferroviarias fuera de los límites territoriales del mismo, así como a no atacar a caravanas de colonos, así como a colaborar con las autoridades federales para perseguir a aquellos indios que violasen el acuerdo. El principal punto de controversia venía en la fijación de los límites, concepto extraño en la mentalidad nómada de las tribus, y en la imposición de la legislación federal en un territorio que, según el propio tratado, no eran los Estados Unidos, sino Nación Sioux. Más adelante, en Washington, Nube Roja afirmaría que las condiciones presentadas por el Presidente no fueron las pactadas en Fort Laramie.

        LAS CONSECUENCIAS DEL TRATADO DE FORT LARAMIE

        La rúbrica del Tratado de Fort Laramie supuso la victoria tanto militar como diplomática de Nube Roja sobre el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, y si bien las condiciones fijadas, en palabras del jefe indio, no fueron las mismas que las fijadas finalmente en Washington, lo cierto es que se desmanteló la Línea Bozeman, evacuándose los fuertes y retirándose el ejército.

        Nube Roja, desconfiado por las anteriores falsas promesas de los blancos, se negó en rotundo a firmar ningún tipo de acuerdo antes de que sus guerreros hubieran quemado los fuertes, y de ese modo se aseguró que el principal problema para las tribus estuviera resuelto antes de viajar a Washington. Su actitud demostró ser muy acertada, y posteriormente, en el Este, realizó una gira en la que impartió diversas conferencias, destacando la de New York, en las que defendió su causa y las mentiras que, según él, habían impuesto mediante engaño las autoridades federales. A él se le atribuye la famosa frase sobre los blancos "nos hicieron muchas promesas, más de las que pueda acordarme, pero mantuvieron una sola. Prometieron tomar nuestras tierras y las tomaron."

        Sin embargo, lo que sí está claro es que gracias a la ratificación del Tratado de Fort Laramie, la paz llegó a la región, y durante casi 10 años, los conflictos evitaron esa zona de operaciones, hasta la Gran Guerra Sioux de 1876.

        Las posteriores violaciones del Tratado supusieron, de nuevo, una campaña de operaciones que llevó al extremo los recursos del ejército, dando como resultado la masacre de Little Big Horn y del 7º de Caballería de Custer. El descubrimiento de oro en las Colinas Negras hizo que millares de colonos se desperdigaran por la región, y Washington intentó comprar las tierras a los indios, quienes rechazaron dignamente la oferta. Sin embargo, las circunstancias de un país en expansión y la poca importancia que se daba a las naciones indias por parte de las autoridades blancas supusieron el estallido de ese nuevo conflicto, que terminaría con el exterminio de las tribus tras otros 20 años de lucha.

     

        Como ya se indicó anteriormente, se ofrece al lector una transcripción exacta, en su idioma original, el inglés, de los 17 artículos que conformaron el Tratado que ha sido objeto de estudio, a fin de que se pueda examinar en profundidad por el interesado un documento legal que constituyó uno de los puntos de inflexión de las Guerras Indias en el Oeste americano, y que quizás sea el documento legal más importante y mejor conservado de las campañas, destacando su importancia por ser, como ya se ha mencionado, el único caso en que Washington fue vencido en el campo diplomático por las naciones indias.

TREATY

Between the United States of America and the Sioux Nation of Indians

_________________ . ________________

 Treaty with the Sioux -Brulé, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arcas and Santee- and Arapahoe, Fort Laramie, 1868

       -Article 1. Form this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall forever cease. The Govermment of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.

       If bad men among the whites, or among other people subjet to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwared to the Commissioner of Indian Affairds at Washington City, proceed al once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also re-imburse the injured person for the loss sustained.

       If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black or Indian, subjet to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof made to their agent and notice to him, deliver up the wrong-doer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws; and in case they wilfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be re-imbursed for his loss from the annuites or other moneys due or to become due to them under this or other treatys made with the United States. And the President, on advising with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisons of this article as in his judgement may be proper. But no one sustaining loss while violating the provisions of this traty or the laws of the United States shall be re-imbursed therefor.

       -Article 2. The United States agrees that the following district of country, to wit, viz: commencing on the east bank of the Missouri river where the forty-sixth paralell of north latitude crosses the same, thence along low-water mark down said east bank to a point opposite where the northern line of the State of Nebraska strikes the river, thence west across said river, and along the northern line of the State of Nebraska to the one hundred and fourth degree of longitude west from Greenwich, thence north on said meridian to a point where the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude intercepts the same, thence due east along said parallel to the place of beginning; and in addition thereto, all existing reservations on the east bank of said river shall be, and the same is, set apart for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the Indians herein named, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit amongst them; and the United States now solemnly agrees that no persons except those herein designates and authorized so to do, and except such officers, agents, and employes of the govermment as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in the territory describe in this article, or in such territory as may be added to this reservation for the use of said Indians, and henceforth they will and do hereby relinquish all claims or right in and to any portion of the United States or Territories, except such as is embraced within the limits aforesaid, and except as hereinafter provided.

       -Article 3. If it should appear from actual survey or other satisfactory examination of said tract of land that it contains less than one hundred and sixty acres of tillable land for each person who, at the time, may be authorized to reside on it under the provisons of this treaty, and a very considerable number of such persons shall be disposed to commence cultivating the soil as farmers, the United States agrees to set apart, for the use of said Indians, as herein provided, such additional quantity of arable land, adjoining to said reservation, or as near to the same as it can be obtained, as may be required to provide the necessary amount.

       -Article 4. The United States agrees, at its own expense, to construct at some place on the Missouri River, near the center of said reservation, where timber and water may be convenient, the following buildings to wit: a warehouse, a store-room for use to the agent in storing goods belonging to the Indians, to cost no less than twenty-five hundred dollars; an agency-building for the residence of the agent, to cost not exceeding three thousend dollars, a residence for the physican, to cost no more than three thousend dollars; and five other buildings, for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller and engineer, each to cost not exceeding two thousend dollars; also a school-house or mission-building, so soon as a sufficient number of children can be induced by the agent to attend school, wich shall no cost exceeding five thousand dollars.

       The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on said reservation, near the other buildings  herein authorize, a good steam circular-saw mill, with a grist-mill and shingle-machine attached to the same, to cost not exceeding eight thousand dollars.

       Article 5. The United States agrees that the agent for said Indians shall in the future make his home at the agency-building; that he shall reside among them, and keep an office open at all times for the purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters to complaint by and against the Indians as may presented for investigation under the provisons or their treaty stipulations, as also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined on him by law. In all cases of depredation on person or property he shall cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded, together with his findings, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose decision, subjet to the revision of the Secretary of the Interior, shall be binding on the parties to this treaty.

       Article 6. If any individual belonging to said tribes or Indians, or legally incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred and twenty acres in exent, which tract, when so selected, certified, and recorded in the "land-book", as herein directed, shall cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it.

       Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a family, may in like manner select and cause to be certified to him or her, for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land not exceeding eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive possession of the same as above directed.

       For each tract of land so selected a certificate, containing a description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded, shall be delivered to the party entitled to it, by the agent, after the same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his office, subject to inspection, which said book shall be known as the "Sioux Land-Book."

       The President may, at any time, order a survey of the reservation, and, when so surveyed, Congress shall provide for protecting the rights of said settlers in their improvements, and may fit the character of the title held by each. The United States may pass such laws on the subject of alienation and descent of property between the Indians and their descendants as may be thoguht proper. And it is further stipulated that any male Indians, over eighteen years of age, of any band or tribe that is or shall hereafter become a party to this treaty, who now is or who shall hereafter become a resident or occupant of any reservation or Territory not included in the tract of country designated and described in this treaty for the permanent home of the Indians, which is not mineral land, nor reserved by the United States for special purposes other than Indian occupation, and who shall have made improvements thereon of the value of two hundred dollars or more, and continuously occupied the same as a homestead for the term of three years, shall be entitled to receive form the United States a patent for one hundred and sixty acres of land including his said improvements, the same to be in the form of the legal sudivisions of the surveys of the public lands. Unpon application in writing, sustained by the proof of two desinterested witnesses, made to the register of the local land-office when the land sought to be entered is within a land district, and when the tract sought to be entered is not in any land district, then upon said application and proof being made to the Commissioner of the General Land-Office, and the right of such Indian or Indians to enter such tract or tracts of land shall accrue and be perfect from the date of his first improvements thereon, and shall continue as long as he continues his residence and improvements, and no longer. And any Indian or Indians receiving a patent for land under the foregoing provisons, shall thereby and from thenceforth become and be a citizen of the United States, and be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of such citizens, and shall, at the same time, retain all his rights to benefits accruing to Indians under this treaty.

       Article 7. In order to insure the civilization of the Indians entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is admited, especially of such of them as are or may be settled on said agricultural reservations, and they therefore pledge themselves to compel their children, male and female,between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school; and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the United States agrees that for every thirty children between said ages who can be induced or compelled to attend school, a house shall be provided and a teacher competent to teach the elementary branches of an English education shall be furnished, who will reside among said Indians, and faithfully discharge his or her duties as a teacher. The provisons of this article to continue for not less than twenty years.

       Article 8. When the head of a family or lodge shall have selected lands and received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating the soil in value one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue to farm, for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and implements as aforesaid, not exceeding in value twenty-five dollars.

      And it is further stipulated that such persons as commence farming shall receive instruction from the farmer herein provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall enter upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall be provided, with such iron, steel, and other material as may be needed.

       Article 9. At any time after ten years from the making of this treaty, the United States shall have the privilege of withdrawing the physician, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, and miller herein provided for, but in case of such withdrawal, and additional sum thereafter of ten thousand dollars per annum shall be devoted to the education of said Indians, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon careful inquiry into their condition, make such rules and regulatiosn for the expenditure of said sum as will best promote the educational and moral improvement of said tribes.

       Article 10. In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid to the Indians herein named, under any treaty or treaties heretofore made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency-house on the reservation herein named, on or before the first day of Agust of each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to witt:

       For each male person over fourteen years of age, a suit of good substantial woolen clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, hat, and a pair of home-made socks.

       For each female over twelve years of age, a flannel skirt, or the goods neccesary to make it, a pair of woolen hose, twelve yards of calico, and twelve yards of cotton domestics.

      For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as a aforesaid, together with a pair of woolen hose for each.

       And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimulate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.

       And in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of ten dollars for each person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be annually appropiated for a period of thirty years, while such persons roam and hunt, and twenty dollars for each person who engages in farming, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of a such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper. And if within the thirty years, at any time, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for clothing under this article can be appropiated to better uses for the Indians named herein, Congress may, by law, change the appropiation to other purposes; but in no event shall the amount of this appropiation be withdrawn or  discontinued for the period named. And the President shall annually detail an officer of the Army to be present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named to the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of their delivery. And it is hereby expressly stipulated that each Indian over the age of four years, who shall have removed to and settled permanetly upon said reservation and complied with the stipulations of this treaty, shall be entitled to receive from the United States, for the period of four years after he shall have settled upon said reservation, one pound of meat and one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians cannot furnish their own subsustence at an earlier date. And it is further stipulated that the United States will furnish and deliver to each lodge of Indians or family of persons legally incorporated with them, who shall remove to the reservation herein described and commence farming, one good American cow, and one good well-broken pair of American oxen within sixty days after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon said reservation.

       Article 11. In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty, and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory outside their reservation as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Plattem and on the Republican Fork of Smoky Hill River, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the case. And they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:

      1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains.

      2nd. That they permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.

      3rd. That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon-trains, coaches, mules or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons friendly therewith.

      4th. They will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white or women or children.

      5th. They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm.

      6th. They withdraw all pretence of opposition to the construction of the railroad now being built along the Platte River and westward to the Pacific Ocean, and they will not in future object of the construction of railroads, wagon-roads, mail-stations, or other works of utily necessity, which may be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States. But should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the Govermment will pay the tribe whatever amoung of damage may be assessed by three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President for that purpose, one said commissioners to be a chief or head-man of the tribe.

      7th. They agree to withdraw all opposition to the military posts or roads now established south of the North Platte River, or that may be established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or hereafter to be made with any of Indian tribes.

       Article 12. No treaty for the cession of any portion or part of the reservation herein described which may be held in common shall be of any validity or force as against the said Indians, unless executed and signed by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians, occupying or interested in the same; and no cession by the tribe shall be understood of construed in such manner as to deprive, without his consent, any individual member of the tribe of his rights to any tract of land selected by him, as provided in article 6 of this treaty.

       Article 13. The United States hereby agrees to furnish annually to the Indians the physican, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and blacksmiths as herein contemplated, and that such appropiations shall be made from time to time, on the estimates of the Secretary of the Interior, as will be sufficient to employ such persons.

       Article 14. It is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars annually, for three years from date, shall be expended in presents to the ten persons of said tribe who in the judgement of the agent may grow the most valuable crops for the respective year.

       Article 15. The Indians herein named agree that when the agency-house or other buildings shall be constructed on the reservation named, they will regard said reservation their permanent home, and they will make no permanent settlement elsewhere; but they shall have the right, subject to the conditions and modifications of this treaty, to hunt, as stipulated in Article 11 hereof.

       Article 16. The United States hereby agrees and stipulates that the country north of the North Platte River and east of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains shall be held and considered to be unceded Indian territory, and also stipulates and agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the consent of the Indians first had and obtained, to pass through the same; and it is further agreed by the United States that within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all the bands of the Sioux Nation, the military post now established in the territory in this article named shall be abandoned, and the road leading to them and by them to the settledments in the Territory of Montana shall be closed.

       Article 17. It is hereby expressly understood and agreed by and between the respective parties to this treaty that the execution of this treaty and its ratification by the United States Senate shall have the effect, and shall be construed as abrogating and annulling all treaties and agreements heretofore entered into between the respective parties hereto, so far as such treaties and agreements obligate the United States to furnish and provide money, clothing, or other articles of property to such Indians and bands of Indians as become parties to this treaty, but no further.

       In testimony of all which, we, the said commisioners, and we, the chiefs and headmen of the Brulé band of the Sioux Nation, have hereunto set our hands and seals at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, this twenty-ninth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight.